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美眾議院通過一項決議限制總統對伊朗動武權力伊朗特朗普
2020-01-11 18:40   来源:  www.photo-nude.com   评论:0 点击:

美眾議院通過一項決議限制總統對伊朗動武權力伊朗特朗普当地时间1月9日下午,美国国会众议院通过了一项民主

  当地时间1月9日下午,美国国会众议院通过了一项民主党人主导的涉战争权议案,要求限制特朗普政府对伊朗的军事行动。

On the afternoon of January 9, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a Democrat-led battle-related bill calling for restrictions on the Trump administration's military action against Iran.

  该议案要求总统终止在针对伊朗政府或其军队的敌对行动中使用美国武装力量,除非国会已经宣战或颁布了相关法律授权,又或者根据1973年《战争权力法案》要求,对武装部队的这种使用对于防止针对美国领土、财产、武装部队的迫在眉睫的攻击是必要的。

The bill requires the President to end the use of the United States armed forces in hostilities against the Iranian Government or its forces, unless Congress has declared war or enacted a relevant legal mandate, or if such use of the armed forces is required under the 1973 War Powers Act to prevent imminent attacks on United States territory, property and armed forces.

  这项议案写道:“在过去的8个月里,为了应对与伊朗日益紧张的关系,美国向中东地区增派了1万5千多名士兵。伊朗将军苏莱曼尼的被杀,以及伊朗对伊拉克军事基地的弹道导弹攻击,都有可能使美国和伊朗之间的敌对形势大幅升级。”

\"In the past eight months, the United States has sent more than 15,000 more troops to the Middle East in response to growing tensions with Iran,\" the bill reads. The killing of Iranian General Sleimani and Iran's ballistic missile attacks on Iraqi military bases are likely to significantly escalate hostilities between the United States and Iran.

  民主党人批评特朗普政府在最新一轮美伊冲突升级中缺乏有效战略,且没有向国会提供充分信息。曾任中情局分析师的密歇根州民主党众议员伊丽莎·斯洛特金是该议案的提起人。她对媒体表示:“(特朗普政府的)战略是什么?怎么知道它成功了,而不是让我们变得越来越危险?我们需要具体的战略细节。”

Democrats have criticized the Trump administration for lacking an effective strategy in the latest escalation of the U.S.-Iranian conflict and for not providing sufficient information to Congress. Rep. Eliza Slotkin, a Michigan Democrat who was a former CIA analyst, was the sponsor of the bill. \"What is the [Trump administration's] strategy? How do you know it worked, not make us more and more dangerous? We need specific strategic details.

  来自弗吉尼亚州的民主党参议员蒂姆·凯恩在参议院也提出了一项类似议案。在共和党控制的参议院,该议案预计将遭遇较大阻力,通过前景黯淡。目前,共和党议员普遍为特朗普政府对苏莱曼尼的打击行动辩护。

Sen. Tim Kaine, a Democrat from Virginia, introduced a similar bill in the Senate. In the Republican-controlled Senate, the bill is expected to face greater resistance and pass bleak prospects. For now, Republican lawmakers have generally defended the Trump administration's crackdown on Suleimani.

  不过,目前也有个别共和党参议员批评特朗普政府对国会的信息分享不充分。来自犹他州的共和党参议员迈克·李表示,就对伊朗的袭击行动,特朗普政府官员为国会提供的吹风“可能是他担任参议员9年来,看到的最糟糕的吹风,至少是在军事问题上”。迈克·李告诉媒体,向国会吹风的行政当局官员“告诉我们要做个好孩子,不要在公共场合讨论这个问题”。另一名共和党参议员兰德·保罗也表示,特朗普政府信息分享的不足将使他支持凯恩提出的战争权力议案。

However, there are also individual Republican senators who have criticized the Trump administration for not sharing enough information about Congress. Republican Sen. Mike Lee, from Utah, said the briefing provided by Trump administration officials to Congress on the attack on Iran \"could be the worst blow he's seen in nine years as a senator, at least on military issues.\" Mike Lee told the press that the administration officials who briefed Congress \"told us to be a good boy and not discuss it in public.\" Another Republican senator, Rand Paul, also said the lack of information sharing in the Trump administration would lead him to support Mr. Cain's proposed war power bill.

  去年,美国参众两院也曾通过一项涉战争权力的决议案,要求限制美国对也门内战的军事支持。特朗普最终否决了该决议案,参众两院也未有超过三分之二的支持票以推翻该否决。

Last year, the U.S. Senate and Senate also passed a resolution on war powers calling for restrictions on U.S. military support for the Yemeni civil war. Trump eventually vetoed the resolution, and neither chamber had more than two-thirds of the vote to overturn it.

  除了对特朗普政府伊朗政策的态度截然相反,两党对众议院新通过这份议案的法律地位也存在分歧。从技术角度看,该议案属于不需总统签署的两院共同决议案。共和党人强调,这样的决议案没有法律效力。然而,有民主党人表示,根据1973年通过的《战争权力法案》,如果该议案也得到参议院的批准,它将具有约束力。众议院议长、头号民主党人佩洛西也强调,该议案将“有牙齿”,尽管她没有详细解释这一说法的法律基础。

As well as opposing attitudes toward the Trump administration's Iranian policies, the parties are divided over the legal status of the new House bill. From a technical point of view, the bill is a common resolution of the two houses that does not need to be signed by the president. Republicans stress that such a resolution has no legal effect. However, some democrats say it will be binding if the bill is also approved by the senate under the war powers act passed in 1973. House Speaker Pelosi, the number one Democrat, also stressed that the bill would be \"toothy,\" though she did not elaborate on the legal basis of the statement.

  美国宪法规定,总统是武装部队总司令,而宣战权由国会掌控。历史上,国会与白宫就战争权展开的博弈一再出现。二战后,美国总统战争权不断上升,直到越南战争引起美国社会普遍反对,国会终于在1973年通过《战争权力法案》。然而,“9·11”事件后,国会相继通过在反恐行动和对伊拉克使用武力的授权法案,再次赋予了行政当局更大的战争权。

The U.S. constitution states that the president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and that the right to declare war is in the hands of Congress. Historically, the game between Congress and the White House over the right to war has been repeated. After World War II, the US President's right to war continued to rise, until the Vietnam War caused widespread opposition in American society, and Congress finally passed the War Power Act in 1973. However, in the wake of the September 11th incident, Congress passed successively an enabling act on counter-terrorism operations and the use of force against Iraq, again giving the administration a greater right to war.

  佩洛西8日表示,除了已经通过的这份议案,众议院可能很快会考虑通过更多的立法来限制特朗普政府的相关军事行动,其中包括众议员芭芭拉·李提出的一项议案,要求废除《2002对伊拉克使用武力授权法》。

In addition to the bill that has already been passed, the House may soon consider passing more legislation to limit the Trump administration's related military action, including a bill from Rep. Barbara Lee to repeal the 2002 Authorization to Use Force against Iraq Act, Pelosi said on Sunday.


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